Sources and References

İK Şirket verileri ve Capital’in Araştırmas. (2011, October 17). Hangi Meslek Grubu Ne Kadar Maaş Alıyor. Retrieved from http://www.isinsani.com/haberler/arastirma/1279-hangi-meslek-grubu-ne-kadar-maas-aliyor.html

2013 Yılının En İyi 100 Meslek Sıralaması (MuhasebeDr.Com) | MuhasebeDR.Com. (2014, July 5). Retrieved from http://www.muhasebedr.com/2013-yilinin-en-iyi-100-meslek-siralamasi/

Daniel Lenkeit. (2013, December). LOHN- UND LOHNNEBENKOSTEN. Retrieved from http://www.gtai.de/GTAI/Content/DE/Invest/_SharedDocs/Downloads/GTAI/Sonstiges/blg-arbeitsmarkt–lohn-und-lohnnebenkosten.pdf

Löhne | Löhne für Deutschland, Schweiz, Österreich. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.lohnanalyse.de/de/loehne.html

7. Assignment

Inequalities in income for the same jobs between Turkey and Germany.

My project will be about this topic because the I notice so much difference in how the jobs are and how you get paid for them. It is interesting because everyone knows a bit about it but nobody will expect that much difference which you can only notice by making comparisons or experiencing it by yourself. My project will contain much of self experience because I worked in both countries. I also have many friends ( also in both countries) who can help me by telling me about their experiences. Obviously it will include as many statistics as I can find to show the differences in also in numbers.

Inequality Between The Black And White Population.


According to the Gini coefficient, South Africa ranks as one of the most unequal  countries in the word. The in inequality in South Africa   is due to apartheid’s effect on different races, but other factors are also important. There are 3 basic forms of inequality which  all  exist in South Africa these are regional disparities, a rural urban divide, and an urban underclass. As it can be seen from the map there are significant differences.The poorer provinces tend to be along the southeastern coast and in the North, whereas the Johannesburg region and the Southwest tend to be wealthier. The most regional difference is between the Western cape and the Eastern cape  which leads to migration to western Cape by the hope to get rid of poverty in the Eastern cape. Inequality in South Africa is highly correlated with race.The system of apartheid, built in 1948-1994 determined economic possibilities and expectations based on race, which can still be seen today. The new National Party which was called apartheid codified laws mandating racial categorization and exclusion. To open this a little, all non whites were excluded not only from the political system, but also from most respectable jobs and good education. The actual aim of this party was to separate the races physically to become able to push the white population up to higher levels. As a result, poor people of European background really benefited from apartheid, as they were able to move  into higher classes, bypassing well-educated non-withes.


As it can bee seen the Gini coefficients for the white population in 1975 stood at a low level like 36. which shows the success of the system. a big role playing point in this program was the made reservations of well-payed jobs for the white population even the well-educated blacks could not find a well-payed job.

Bildschirmfoto 2014-11-24 um 04.34.58

In this table the average income by race from 1975 until 2011 is shown.Actually  regardless  of the household we could  say that  it’s almost equal in the middle class but we can’t just overlook  the number of the household because the number of the black households are approximately 9 times less than the whites. But as we can see  the percentage of black people is still  much  higher  in 1975  in the category of under 5.000 dollar. In the middle class we need to focus on the number of the households  to not get confused of the almost similar percentages. In the upper classes the blacks percentages decrease dramatically which leads to the conclusion that even in 2011  the white population  earns almost  the double of the black population

.Bildschirmfoto 2014-11-24 um 05.09.16

In the mid 1970s, the apartheid party began to loose its restrictions, and started unintentionally allowing some educated non-whites to take higher-level jobs. Also important was the shifting labor market. Jobs requiring little education, especially in mining, began to decrease after 1975. With the end on the party in 1994 ,the change for mobility increased. The end of apartheid has given many educated non-whites  the opportunity to obtain professional higher payed jobs. Unfortunately the majority of black people still suffer from the lack of marketable skills. This might even continue to be felt in the next generation.

Sources: http://www.hss.de/fileadmin/suedafrika/downloads/Mining_Report_Final_Dec_2013.pdf



Taha Günner


assignment 5

Underground railway system in Berlin and Istanbul.

In Germany  the first underground was built in 1902 in Berlin. It was 13 meter long 2,30 meter wide and 173 stations where also build  in the beginning. According to http://www.berlin.de  In 2011 507,3 mil people used the underground which means 42,275,000 mil per month and 1,409,166,67 million per day. In the consideration that  and average ticked cost approximately  4 euro the daily income only from tickets from the underground would be 5,636,666,68 euro per day. The construction price for the whole concept was according  to http://www.focus.de/politik/deutschland/433-millionen-euro-sind-nicht-genug-kanzler-u-bahn-kommt-berlin-teurer-als-geplant_id_3428959.html approximately around 525 million euros.Compered with Istanbul’s underground system called “metro“ the only  point to which is approximately similar somehow is the construction costs. On http://arsiv.ntvmsnbc.com/news/30122.asp it’s stated that construction costs for the underground in Istanbul is about 631 million dollar which is concerted to euro 507,59 million. It’s also stated at http://arsiv.ntvmsnbc.com/news/30122.asp  that the undergrounds max. capacity is 70.000 people per hour calculate this for a day month and year would be in average 1,330 mil per day ( 19 hour active work ), 39,900 mil per month and 478,8 mil per year.  To figure out the income from the underground “metro“ in Istanbul  we will make it fair and take  the student price from one half and a normal price from the other half and add them together. The student  price is 110 and the full price is 2,90  which gives us the result of the  income  per day month and year. Making a start with the yearly income 957,6 mil per year, 319,2 mil per month, 2,66 mil per day.

sources:   http://www.berlin.de





The importance of references in scientific researches.


It has been 2014 now and most people don’t know/care about the importance of References in a scientific research. Unfortunately people just pass others ideas off as they were their one’s own. Actually most people who have to make a scientific research know about the importance of references which means that they copy others ideas intentionally due to various reasons. Nevertheless not everyone who plagiarized should be blamed for it at least authors, tutors etc. because there are a bunch of people who do it unintentionally. The reason for that is that they don’t know what the ready expects, the tutor expects and what its advantage would be for everyone.

So why is it such a big deal to give sources? A list I found on the web on (http://www.reading.ac.uk) might help to explain the reasons.

  1. References acknowledge that part of your work is based on the work and material of others.
  2. Failure to acknowledge that some of your opinions and information have come from others may be regarded as plagiarism.
  3. References show your reader the range and nature of your source materials.
  4. It is important that any reference you give to published sources provides sufficient detail to enable anyone to find for themselves the book or article you are citing. An accurate and detailed description of your source allows your reader to find and read it. Your tutor will therefore be able to evaluate how you have used source material to develop your own work.
  5. To distinguish your own ideas from those of someone else.

To summarize this 5 statements in one. We have to state our sources to distinguish our part of word from someone else’s because if we don’t do that it could be regarded as plagiarism. Also the references show how detailed the research was/is for example nowadays almost no one makes research from books in other words in libraries because of its wastefulness but some informations are so old that you have to find a book which contains the information you need. And this effort makes the research more reliable for someone who red the book or knows the author and more interesting due to its diversity. At least giving references are truly necessary for those who want to prove it or even use your sources and your research to make a new individual one.

Sources: http://www.reading.ac.uk/library/finding-info/guides/lib-citing-why.aspx

2 Assignment

1.The two-baby family makes a come back !

“Baby boom has seen the number of births per mother average two for the first time since 1973“. This is how it’s stated in the article written from Steve Doughty in a newspaper. The whole article is exaggerated. The average of to  births per mother is not a big deal  because  since 8 years which means between 2001 and 2009 there isn’t a big difference at the rate of births ,its’s just between 0,40.The statistics according to “http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-13809280“ show that it was always changing among 1,60 and 1,96. So the increase was actually expected  and  it wasn’t a shocking situation. What is also mentioned in the article by Steve Doughty in the Daily Mail is that  “children from married couple are healthier and do better at school and later in their careers“. This statement has no evidence and there are no sources for this and according to my experience it’s the opposite. Children with  no father  are more likely to work harder in there lives because they haven’t got the family factor which gives you a feeling that you don’t have to do nothing. Growing up with  no father leads to have more responsibilities in a younger age. It’s stated that “In London around half of all babies have mothers from abroad. Around 70 per cent of the increase  in the population is put down to immigration“. But according to (http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-13809280) “The experts are confident the explanation is not immigration but think it might be an unintended consequence of policies to reduce child poverty“. Which lets the information become untrue.

2.How family meals can stop eating disorders.

According to Professor Fiese “teens who eat at least five meals a week with their families are 35 per cent less likely to be ´disordered eaters´ “. In addition to this she added that “even three family meals a week helped, with youngsters 12 per cent less likely to be overweight than those who ate with their families less often“. And at least it was stated that  24 per cent from these 12 per cent who were less likely to be overweight were more likely to eat healthy food and have healthy eating habits.To clear this up there is almost no family which is able to have a meal 5 times a wee as a family because of various excuses and it helps just 35 per cent  to stop  eating disorders which is not much. Three time a week is more realistic but according to Prof. Fiese the benefit is just 12 pe cent which makes it really not worth mentioning.

sources: “http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-13809280



What is cancer? Let’s start with this quest to get a little overview about  what will be in the report.

Doctors speak about cancer  when the building process of new Somatic cells  goes wrong. If a cell dies the body normally builds new ones  by  splitting other cells but it  does this just as long as it needs to.

Let’s move on to  the question “what causes cancer “?  After some research we found out that there are  so  many factors which  may cause cancer. According to “http://www.cancerresearchuk.org“    there are about 200 different types of cancer  which means  that there are also about 200 types of causes. Every different type of cancer  has  its own cause to make it clear lung cancer cant be caused by the sun, the  sun can only cause skin cancer. The main factors  for developing cancer are for ex. cancer causing substances (carcinogens), age, genetic make up, the immune system, smoking, bodyweight, diet, physical activity and day to day environment.

To start with one cancer causing substances (carcinogens) are  things like cigarets, plastic and even most of the soaps  we use to “clean“ our gads with. But as we  experience not everyone develops cancer after using them because it does not only depend on the substances. In the most cases there has  to be more causes to develop cancer.

Age is a major causes to develop cancer because the change  of the cells takes a long time  and during this time  the cells become  more likely to develop cancer in short ( quote:“ the longer we live, the more time there is for genetic mistakes to happen in our cells.“)

When we mention genetic make up everyone knows about this cause a little.If someone in your family have had developed cancer u are likely to develop it, too. But it doesn’t has to happen to you. Doctors call this genetic predisposition. According to the same source we mentions on top the breast cancer genes are examples of genetic predisposition. Women who carry one of these faulty genes have a higher chance of developing breast cancer than women who do not.

Also the immune system could lead to develop cancer. People who have problems with their immune system are more likely to develop cancer for ex. people  who have AIDS or have had an organ transplant.

The western world is likely to consume fast food and because of the stressed days more people smoke  and because of many excuses people  don’t prefer to do sport  they  prefer to eat less or light  food which is in the most cases more unhealthy than the ones which were not preferred. Having snacks all the time to save time  or eating unhealthy stuff because of cheapness is a major cause  to develop cancer. Overweight is a major problem in the western countries and overweighted people are more likely to develop cancer because of their food preferences.

At least  our day to day environment is playing a big  role for us two major cases are very risky  tobacco smoke  something we (non smokers) all hate to in heal  and even the sun its self we don’t protect ourselves good enough in terms of sun cream in the summer even if we wound  go to the beach.

In conclusion I learned a lot “for me“ about cancer it was was a great experience and my first time making research about such an important title.

About how we worked toughener: We met  each other at first at school to have a more direct conversation and to share idea which was  very helpful and after we texted each other to hang on the informations we found after like the sources.

Sources: http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/cancers-in-general/causes-symptoms/causes/what-causes-cancer



Goup members : elif günaydin  NO: 11424135

taha Günner  NO: 11324012

oguzhan nacak NO:11424077

kemal kurtoglu